ShapeQuality core value

Nurturing Health Vitality

At Kannappa Memorial Hospital, we realize that every patient is unique and has distinct needs. As part of our comprehensive approach to medicine, we provide a multitude of specialities that work together to bring individualized care to all clients. In addition to medical care to focus on the client and their needs, we provide psychological and social work support. We also offer comfort, education and support for our client’s families.

Timely care is provided and treatments are defined in accordance with the client’s outcome. Our staff are a large part of what makes Kannappa Memorial great. The doctors regularly collaborate in order to bring our clients the finest in multidisciplinary care.

Kannappa Memorial Hospital treats a wide spectrum of conditions related

Oncology is the medical speciality that studies and treats cancer. Hematology- oncology is the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases and cancer. Hematologic oncologists are trained in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood cancers and blood related disorders. Our flags fly high of our high tech team health care professionals, Virtual Reality Rehabilitation Department and exclusive advanced diagnostic imaging for cancer and laboratory tests, and provide advanced medical treatments for patients with cancerous hematologic diseases, including

Hematologic malignancies differ from other types of cancer because they develop in body’s cells and may not form tumours. While some hematologic oncologists have a expertise in treating solid tumours, most do not treat operable cancers such as breast cancer or lung cancer. Stem cell transplantation, a treatment option for some blood cancers is performed at KM hospital by hematologic oncologist.

LEUKEMIA

Leukemia is cancer of the body’s blood forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. Leukemia usually involves the white blood cells- potent infection fighters, normally grow and divide in an orderly way, as your body needs them. But in people with leukemia, the bone marrow produces an excessive amount of excessive abnormal white blood cells, which don’t function properly.

Leukemia is a malignant increase in the number of leukocytes, usually at an immature stage, in the bone marrow. It affects bone marrow, causing anemia from decreased erythrocytes, infection from neutropenia and bleeding from decreased platelet production. The cause is unknown; it seems to involve genetic damage of cells, leading to the transformation of cells from a normal state to a malignant state.

Risk factors include genetic, viral, immunological, environmental, exposure to radiation, chemicals and medications. Acute lymphocytic leukemia is the most frequent type of cancer in children; peak onset is age 2 to 6 years. Leukemia is more common in boys than girls after 1 year of age. Prognosis depends on various factors such as age at diagnosis, initial white blood cell count, type of cell involved and sex of the child.

Treatment involves chemotherapy and possibly radiation. The phases of chemotherapy include induction, which achieves a complete remission or disappearance of leukemic cells; intensification or consolidation therapy, which decreases the tumour burden further; central nervous system prophylactic therapy, which prevents leukemic cells from invading the central nervous system and maintenance, which serves to maintain the remission phase. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation also may be performed to treat some children with leukemia.

Assessment

Fever, Pallor, fatigue, anorexia, hemorrhage, bone and joint pain, pathologic fractures can occur. Signs of infection, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, normal, elevated or low blood cell count depending on the presence of infection or of immature versus mature white blood cells, decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, decreased platelet count, a positive bone marrow biopsy specimen identifies leukemic blast, signs of increased intracranial pressure, shows signs of cranial or spinal nerve involvement, clinical manifestations indicate the invasion of leukemic cells to the kidneys, testes, prostrate, ovaries, GI tract and lungs.

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

Sickle cell anemia constitutes a group of diseases termed hemoglobinopathies, in which hemoglobin A is partly or completely replaced by abnormal sickle hemoglobin S. It is caused by the inheritance of a gene for a structurally abnormal portion of the hemoglobin chain. Risk factors include having parents heterozygous for hemoglobin S or being of African-American descent.

Hemoglobin S is sensitive to changes in the oxygen content of the red blood cell. Insufficient oxygen causes the cells to assume a sickle shape, and the cells become rigid and clumped together, obstructing capillary blood flow. The clinical manifestations primarily occur as a result of obstruction caused by sickled red blood cells and increased red blood cell destruction.

Situations that precipitate sickling include fever, dehydration, and emotional or physical stress; any condition that increases the need for oxygen or alters the transport of oxygen can result in sickle cell crisis (acute exacerbation). Sickle cell crises are acute exacerbations of the disease, which vary considerably in severity and frequency; these include vaso-occlusive crisis, splenic sequestration and aplastic crisis.

The sickling response is reversible under conditions of adequate oxygenation and hydration; after repeated sickling, the cell becomes permanently sickled. A multidisciplinary approach to care is needed, and care focuses on the prevention (preventing exposure to infection and maintaining normal hydration) and treatment (oxygen, hydration, pain management, and bedrest) of the crisis.

Sickle Cell Crisis

01

Vaso-Occlusive Crisis

caused by stasis of blood with clumping of cells in the microcirculation, ischemia, and infarction.
Manifestations: Fever, painful swelling of hands, feet and joints, abdominal pain

02

Splenic sequestration

caused by pooling and clumping of blood in the spleen (hypersplenism)
Manifestations: Profound anemia, hypovolemia and shock

03

Aplastic Crisis

caused by diminished production and increased destruction of red blood cells, triggered by viral infection or depletion of folic acid
Manifestations: Profound anemia, pallor

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

Iron stores are depleted, resulting in a decreased supply of iron for the manufacture of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia commonly results from blood loss, increased metabolic demands, syndromes of gastrointestinal malabsorption and dietary inadequacy.

Assessment:

Pallor, weakness and fatique, Irritability, low hemoglobulin and hematocrit levels, Red blood cells that are microcytic and hypochromic.

APLASTIC ANEMIA

Aplastic anemia is a deficiency of circulating erythrocytes and all other formed elements of blood resulting from the arrested development of cells within the bone marrow. It can be primary or secondary (acquired). Several possible causes exist, including chronic exposure to myelotoxic agents, viruses, infection, autoimmune disorders and allergic states.

The definitive diagnosis is determined by bone marrow aspiration (shows conversion of red bone marrow to fatty bone marrow). Therapeutic management focuses on restoring function to the bone marrow and involves immunosuppressive therapy and the bone marrow transplantation (treatment if a suitable donor exists). If the cause is a myelotoxic medication that is being administered for another purpose, the medication may be discontinued to improve the bone marrow function.

Assessment:

Pancytopenia (deficiency of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes). Petechiae, purpura, bleeding, pallor, weakness, tachycardia and fatique

HEMOPHILIA

Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders resulting from a deficiency of specific coagulation protein. Identifying the specific coagulation deficiency of specific replacement agent can be implemented. Aggressive replacement therapy is initiated to prevent the chronic crippling effects from joint bleeding.

The most common types are factor viii deficiency (Hemophilia A or Class Hemophilia) and factor IX deficiency (Hemophilia B or Christmas diseases). Hemophilia is transmitted as an X- linked recessive disorder. (It may occur as a result of a gene mutation). Carrier females pass on the defect to affected males; females offspring are rarely born with the disorder, but may be if they inherit an affected gene from their mother and are offspring of a father with hemophilia.

The primary treatment is replacement of the missing clotting factor, additional medications, such as agents to relieve pain or corticosteroids, may be prescribed depending on the source of bleeding from the disorder.

Assessment

Abnormal bleeding in response to trauma or surgery, Epistaxis, Joint bleeding causing pain, tenderness, swelling and limited range of motion, tendency to bruise easily. Results of tests that measure platelet function are normal; results of tests that measure clotting factor function may be abnormal.

HODGKIN’S DISEASE

Hodgkin’s disease is a malignancy of the lymph nodes the originates in a single lymph node or a single chain of nodes. The disease predictably metastasizes to non nodal or extralymphatic sites, especially the spleen, liver, bone marrow, lungs and mediastinum. It is characterized by the presence of Reed- Sternberg cells noted in a lymph node biopsy specimen. Peak incidence in midadolescence. Possible causes include viral infections and previous exposure to alkylating chemical agents.

The prognosis is excellent with long term survival rates depending on the stage of the disease. The primary treatment modalities are radiation and chemotherapy, each may be used alone or in combination, depending on the clinical stage of the disease.

Assessment

Painless enlargement non tender movable lymph nodes in supraclavicular area and sentinel node located near left clavicle may be first enlarged node, nonproductive cough as a result of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, Abdominal pain as a result of enlarged retroperitoneal nodes, low grade or intermittent fever, weight loss, night sweats, pruritis, anorexia, CT scan of liver, spleen, bone marrow may be done to detect metastasis.